The Internet has no physical location, beyond borders and is globally inclusive. As a result, devices are interacting from all parts of the world, controlled by completely different people whom all have a different standard of ethics to one another. This variation in ethics and justifications along combined with no single body monitoring cyberspace leads to the common practice of cybercrime. Criminal activity is even committed over Cyberspace via government bodies including North Korea, Russia, China (Perl, 2007) Cybercrime is highly complex, the perpetrator or group could be in another country, use software, proxies, or have some other kind McGuire’s (2012) found that up to “80% of cybercrime could be the result of some form of organized activity.” With those involved based in “loosely associated illicit networks rather than formal organizations (Décary-Hétu & Dupont, 2012). Consider the greater range of skills, resources and capabilities of cybercriminals through having underground connections.
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Cyberethics is fragile, controversial, and variable. In a sense that one groups idea of what is ethical and moral is likely to completely differ to another groups. Its a matter of perspective and what people want out of Cyberculture. Consider the viewpoints on on Torrenting, unauthorised streaming and downloading – all illegal within many countries including Australia but that has not stopped people from doing so and many people do not agree with those laws.
There are multiple viewpoints on the issue. Firstly, the “fundamentalist protectors” against piracy. Where pirating equates to stealing a car. A consideration to make is the people involved in the production process, whom some believe deserve the credit, appreciation and to be paid for their work. Some suggest that piracy is lowering the incentive and desire to produce new and innovative entertainment.
Alternatively, there are the “fundamentalist libertarians” that believe that information and content should be…
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Through new technologies, society develops new capabilities – some potential capabilities considered questionable and raise the concern of liability. Consider the moral dilemmas of Google’s self-driving car in terms of responsibility, liability, legalities, harm selection and minimisation.
(Source: Technology Review)
These questions and possibilities lead toward the notion of Cyber-Ethics: the study of societal principles of what is considered appropriate and “moral” in the use of technologies. Ethical standards may lead to legal, programming and personal constraints that will reflect on the capabilities given to machinery and software. Cyber-ethics is an interesting study, considering its distance and complexity from legal frameworks and the common viewpoint of cyberspace being outside of state “borders”.
Hayles article connected human’s to the term “organic machines” encouraging the discussion of what separates our species from robots and machinery. The development of robots and cybernetics leads to more ethical discussions in their treatment, rights…
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"Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data." Neuromancer (@GreatDismal) .